How Computers Work

How Computers Execute Their Functions


A computer does most of its work in a machine part we don't see called the CPU which is a system that turns data into information.


The control processing unit is a set of circuitries which is extensive and highly complex. Its main purpose is to execute instructions that are stored in programs. This helps you access files you can't see no matter where you are hence acting as a desktop in the cloud. All computers, both small and large have a CPU.

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Storage and Memory


Memory also referred to as the primary memory or the random-access memory (RAM). Although it's associated with the CPU, the memory is a completely different part of computers.


Memory stores data or program instructions only when they relate to the program in operation. When the program is not in operation, keeping data and instructions isn't feasible because of the following reasons:


- There might not be any available room for the processed data to be held.

- If the number of programs running simultaneously is more than one since one program can't claim the entire memory exclusively.

- The memory stores data only when the computer is on so when it's turned off, the data might get destroyed and you might not access it from the desktop in the cloud.


The storage of computers is divided into:


- Secondary storage

- Primary Storage


The CPU collaborates mostly with the primary storage which is the key memory for data and instructions.


Software


The information system of a computer has two major components: The hardware and the software.


The software part of a computer refers to the set of instructions that govern the hardware and tell it what to do. It is created through a process called programming. The hardware depends on the software and can't function without it. You can access all the data easily through your desktop in the cloud.


The software can be further subdivided into:


- The application software

- Operating systems


Languages


The CPU understands a rudimentary (also called low-level) language that is known as" machine code". Instructions in the form of machine code are represented by numbers and can be executed by the hardware directly. Programming languages are translated to machine code before they can be executed.


Kernels


This refers to the main component of the operating system. It uses system calls and inter-process communication to act as a bridge between data processing being performed by the hardware and the applications. It performs low-level tasks like task management, disk, and memory management.


The memory of computers is what enables the access of your machine from any place hence helping you have a reliable desktop in the cloud.